# How do you convert a 220 volt to a 5 volt DC?

## How do you convert a 220 volt to a 5 volt DC?

In order to use the 220V AC supply as 5V DC supply, voltage step down transformer and a rectifier circuit are used, which is shown in Fig. 3. In this circuitry, a step-down transformer is used to convert 220V AC to 9V AC. This 9V AC is then transformed into 9V DC by a full bridge rectifier circuit.

## How do you convert 230V AC to 5V DC without transformer?

230Vac to 5Vdc transformerless Power Supply diagram,

1. Unit is a series resistor unit.
2. The block is a capacitor dropper in this unit we drop the voltages by the capacitor.
3. Unit is a bridge rectifier unit the rectifier unit converts the AC voltages into DC which have ripples on it.

How do you drive a relay with a microcontroller?

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A relay can be easily interfaced with microcontroller using a transistor as shown below. Transistor is wired as a switch which carries the current required for operation of the relay. When the pin RB7 of the PIC microcontroller goes high, the transistor BC547 turns On and current flows through the relay.

What can we use instead of relay?

In this case you would use a switching transistor. A transistor is an electronic device that can work as a switch. It allows control of a large current by a smaller current as does a relay. Unlike a relay, however, a transistor is not mechanical, and can operate much faster than a relay.

### How can we step down AC voltage without transformer?

Without a transformer, you can drop the voltage using a resistive voltage divider (load can form part of one of the resistors), rectifying to DC and using a regulator, or both. Voltage can be increased ONLY if converting to DC, using a voltage multiplier.

### How does the microcontroller energize de energize the relay?

A microcontroller can activate the relay through any of its output pins, with a circuit as shown in the diagram below. The relay coil is energized by means of a transistor which acts as a current amplifier and has its base connected to the output of the microcontroller, in this case, RA0.

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What is relay in microcontroller?

Relays are devices which allow low power circuits to switch a relatively high Current/Voltage ON/OFF. For a relay to operate a suitable pull-in & holding current should be passed through its coil.

Why use a transistor instead of a relay?

– They’re much faster than relays. Switching ranges are typically in the nanosecond (10-9 second) range, many orders of magnitude faster than the equivalent relay. – Transistors can behave as analog devices, allowing for signal amplification. – They’re much smaller than the equivalent relay.

## Should I use a relay or a transistor?

A relay can be used with AC or DC power over a very broad range of power levels. A transistor is generally meant to be used with DC power or digital signals, but they can be used with AC signals as well.

## How to step down from 220V to 5V in microcontroller?

To assure protection of microcontroller, you will need to step down 220 volt AC into AC voltage whose peak value should be less than 5V. For example , 220V AV mean RMS voltage and its peak value is equal to 311 volt. similarly you have to step down high AC voltage of in such a way that its peak value should not be greater than 5 volt.

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Why can’t a microcontroller measure voltage greater than 5V?

Because microcontrollers can’t measure voltage greater than 5V. If you give voltage more than 5V to the analog input of microcontroller, it will get damage permanently. To assure protection of microcontroller, you will need to step down 220 volt AC into AC voltage whose peak value should be less than 5V.

How do you reduce the voltage of a 230V circuit?

Instead, the voltage is reduced by series capacitor (C1) connected directly to the 230V AC mains voltage. The AC mains voltage is rectified by diode D1, and the resulting DC voltage is smoothed by capacitor C2. Zener diode ZD1 is added as a pre-regulator for total circuit protection.

### How to measure 220 volt AC voltage in LCD display?

LCD displays 220 volt AC which is measured with the help of microcontroller and necessary components connected with the microcontroller and potentioal transformer. List of required componensts for how to measure ac voltage is given below: